Over the last decade a substantial literature has developed on the causes as well as the social and political consequences of the Iranian revolution of 1979, which replaced the modernist and authoritarian Pahlavi monar- chy with the antimodernist and repressive theocracy of the Islamic Re- public. Some studies have stressed the historical role of the Muslim Shiite ideology and its institutions in Iranian politics (Akhavi; Mottahedeh; Fischer; Amir Arjomand). Others have focused on the role of imperialist powers in Iran as well as on the class composition and ideology of radical groups that initiated social movements (Halliday; Keddie; Abrahamian; Parsa). Still others have pointed to the disruptive consequences of mod- ernization during the Pahlavi era (Menashri). Regardless of their theoreti- cal orientation, most commentaries on the 1979 revolution have agreed with feminist writers and social scientists that the revolution involved a significant shift in gender relations and that the government of the Is- lamic Republican Party (IRP) followed an agenda that aimed at reversing many of the political and social gains of the Iranian women in the last century (Sanasarian; Azari; Tabari and Yeganeh; Moghadam; Moghissi; Yeganeh; Afkhami and Friedl).